Raspberry Pi Setup Guide

To install the Viam RDK, you need a Raspberry Pi running a 64-bit Linux distribution.

If you already have a 64-bit Linux distribution installed on your Pi, skip ahead to enable the required communication protocols for your hardware.

Click to check whether the Linux installation on your Raspberry Pi is 64-bit

Hardware requirements

Install Raspberry Pi OS

To install Raspberry Pi OS (formerly called Raspbian) on a microSD card from which the Pi boots, connect the microSD card to your computer.

  1. Download the Raspberry Pi Imager and launch it.

    Raspberry Pi Imager launcher window showing a 'Choose OS' and 'Choose Storage' buttons.
  2. Select CHOOSE OS. Click on Raspberry Pi OS (other).

    Raspberry Pi Imager window showing Raspberry Pi OS (Other) is selected.

    Select Raspberry Pi OS (Legacy, 64-bit) Full from the menu.

    Raspberry Pi Imager window showing Raspberry Pi OS (Legacy, 64-bit) Full is selected.

    You should be brought back to the initial launch screen.

  3. To make your Raspberry Pi easier to access in the next step, configure your Raspberry Pi’s hostname, ssh credentials, and wifi. Click the gear-shaped settings icon in the lower right to bring up the Advanced options menu.

    Raspberry Pi Imager window showing gear-shaped settings icon is selected.Raspberry Pi Imager window showing the advanced options menu.

    Check Set hostname and enter the name you would like to access the Pi by in that field.

    There are two ways you can secure your Raspberry Pi: with an SSH key or with password authentication.

    To use the SSH key method: check Enable SSH. Using SSH Keys for authentication is a great way of securing your Raspberry Pi as only someone with the private SSH key will be able to authenticate to your system. If you select Allow public-key authentication only, and the section set authorized_ keys for 'pi' is pre-populated, that means you do have an existing public SSH key that is ready to use. In that case, you do not have to change this section.

    If this section is empty, you can either generate a new SSH key using these instructions, or you can use password authentication instead.

    Raspberry Pi Imager window showing 'Set Hostname' and 'Enable SSH' both selected.

    If you decide to use the password authentication method: click on Use password authentication. If you scroll down, you have the option to change the username, then to set a password:

    Raspberry Pi Imager window showing the 'Set username and password' option is selected.

    Lastly, you should connect your Pi to Wi-Fi, so that you can run viam-server wirelessly. Check Configure wireless LAN and enter your wireless network credentials. SSID (short for Service Set Identifier) is your Wi-Fi network name, and password is the network password. Change the section Wireless LAN country to where your router is currently being operated and then hit save:

    Raspberry Pi Imager window showing the 'Configure wireless LAN' option selected with SSID and password information for a wireless network.

    This should return you to the initial screen.

  4. Now you need to pick your storage medium, so click CHOOSE STORAGE:

    Raspberry Pi Imager window showing the main page, and the 'Choose Storage' button is selected.

    You may have many devices listed, select the microSD card you intend to use in your Raspberry Pi. If this page is blank and you do not have any listed, make sure your microSD card is connected to your computer correctly:

    The storage screen is shown with a generic SD card available as an option.
  5. After clicking save, double check your OS and Storage settings and then click WRITE:

    A warning is shown that says All existing data on the SD card will be erased. Are you sure that you want to continue?

    You will be prompted to confirm erasing your microSD card: select YES. You may also be prompted by your operating system to enter an Administrator password:

    macOS admin password confirmation screen.

    After granting permissions to the Imager, it will begin writing and then verifying the Linux installation to the MicroSD card:

    The Raspberry Pi Imager will display information on the status of the write.

    Remove the microSD card from your computer when it is complete:

    You will be notified with a dialogue box informing you that Raspberry Pi OS (Legacy, 64-bit) Full has been written successfully.
  6. Place the SD card into your Raspberry Pi and boot the Pi by plugging it in to an outlet. A red LED will turn on to indicate that the Pi is connected to power.

Connect with SSH

Once your Raspberry Pi is plugged in and turned on, wait a minute to let your Pi boot up.

Launch your terminal on your computer and run this command:

ssh <USERNAME>@<HOSTNAME>.local

If you are prompted “Are you sure you want to continue connecting?”, type “yes” and hit enter. Then, enter your password. You should be greeted by a login message and a command prompt.

Next, it’s good practice to update your Raspberry Pi to ensure all the latest packages are installed:

sudo apt update
sudo apt upgrade

Enable communication protocols

Certain hardware, such as analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), accelerometers, and sensors, communicates with your Pi using specialized communications protocols, including I2C, SPI, serial, or one-wire protocols. If you are using hardware that requires these protocols, you must enable support for them on your Pi using raspi-config:

  1. Launch the configuration tool by running the following command:

    sudo raspi-config
    
  2. Use your keyboard to select “Interface Options”, and press return.

    Screenshot of the Raspi Config screen with a red box and red arrow pointing to the '3 Interface Options' option where you can find the I2C and other drivers
  3. Enable the relevant protocols to support your specific hardware. For example:

    • If you are using an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), motor, or other device that requires the SPI protocol, enable SPI.
    • If you are using an accelerometer, sensor, or other device that requires the I2C protocol, enable I2C.
    • If you are using a CSI v1.3 or v2.0 camera, enable Legacy Camera support.
    • If you are using a sensor, motor, or other device that communicates over the serial port, enable Serial Port.

    Check the documentation for your specific component to verify the communication protocols it requires.

  4. Then, to apply the changes, restart your Raspberry Pi if it hasn’t already prompted you to do so.

    sudo reboot
    

Install viam-server

viam-server is distributed for Linux as an AppImage. The AppImage is a single, self-contained binary that runs on 64-bit Linux systems running the aarch64 or x86_64 architectures, with no need to install any dependencies (except for FUSE, which is required by the AppImage format).

To install viam-server on a Linux computer:

  1. Determine if FUSE version 2 is installed on your Linux system:

    find /usr -name libfuse.so.2
    

    If the above command does not return a path to the libfuse.so.2 file, install FUSE version 2 according to your Linux platform:

    • If installing viam-server on a Raspberry Pi running Raspberry Pi OS (Debian GNU/Linux 12 bookworm or later), install FUSE version 2 with the following command:

      sudo apt install libfuse2
      
    • If installing viam-server on Ubuntu, install FUSE version 2 with the following commands:

      sudo add-apt-repository universe
      sudo apt install libfuse2
      
    • If installing viam-server on other Linux distributions, or for more information, see FUSE troubleshooting.

    Do not install the fuse package (that is, without a version number). viam-server requires FUSE version 2 specifically (libfuse2).

  2. Go to the Viam app and add a new machine by providing a name in the New machine field and clicking Add machine. If this is your first time using the Viam app, you must create an account first.

    The ‘First Location’ page on the Viam app with a new machine name in the New machine field and the Add machine button next to the field highlighted.

  3. On the Setup tab, select Linux (Aarch64) or Linux (x86_64) for the appropriate Architecture for your computer. On most Linux operating systems, you can run uname -m to confirm your computer’s architecture.

  4. Follow the steps shown on the Setup tab to install viam-server on your Linux computer.

  5. Once you have followed the steps on the Setup tab, viam-server is installed and running. Return to the Setup page on the Viam app and wait for confirmation that your computer has successfully connected.

By default, viam-server will start automatically when your system boots, but you can change this behavior if desired.

Next steps

Troubleshooting

Write error when imaging Raspberry Pi OS

If you experience the error Verifying write failed. Contents of SD card is different from what was written to it when imaging your Raspberry Pi with the Imager in step 5, there might be an issue with your micro SD card reader.

Try a different micro SD card reader, or use a different USB port on your computer.

If you are connecting your SD card reader to your computer through a USB hub, try connecting directly it to your computer instead.

Error: can’t read from I2C address

If you see the error error: can't read from I2C address in your logs after installing viam-server, you need to enable I2C support on your Raspberry Pi. You can use the command sudo journalctl --unit=viam-server to read through the viam-server log file. Follow the instructions to enable communication protocols on your Pi to resolve this error.

Add additional WiFi credentials

If you move your machine to a different WiFi network, you will have to update the WiFi credentials.

You can update the WiFi configuration by creating a new wpa_supplicant.conf file on the “boot” partition.

The steps are explained below.

  1. Plug your Pi’s microSD card into your computer and create a plain text file called wpa_supplicant.conf.

  2. Paste the following example into the file, replacing “Name of your wireless LAN” and “Password for your wireless LAN” with your credentials. Be sure to use UNIX (LF) line breaks in your text editor.

  3. Save the file and eject the microSD card.

  4. Put the microSD card back into the Pi and boot the Pi.

The wpa_supplicant.conf file will be read by the Pi on boot, and the file will disappear but the WiFi credentials will be updated.

You can duplicate the “network” section to add additional WiFi networks (for example your work, and your home).

The “priority” attribute is optional and can be used to prioritize networks if multiple networks are configured (higher numbers are prioritized).

ctrl_interface=DIR=/var/run/wpa_supplicant GROUP=netdev
update_config=1
country=us

network={
 ssid="Name of your wireless LAN"
 psk="Password for your wireless LAN"
 priority=10
}

network={
ssid="Name of your other wireless LAN"
psk="Password for your other wireless LAN"
priority=20
}

Additional troubleshooting

You can find additional assistance in the Troubleshooting section.